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Nutrafoods 1 – 2015 (pdf)
Red wine and antioxidants
African pear polyphenols
Editorial A new Editor for Nutrafoods
- Health effects of erythritol
- Elucidation of key antioxidant components in red wine via challenge with a range of oxidants using an HPLC comparison to faux wine
- Effect of processing methods on the antioxidant properties and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by African pear (Dacryodes edulis) fruit
- Raw versus cooked vegetable juice
- Optimization of bioprocessing parameters using response surface methodology for bael (Aegle marmelos L.) wine with the analysis of antioxidant potential, colour and heavy metal concentration
- Health Claims
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Health effects of erythritol
Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten, Gertjan J.M. den Hartog, Peter de Cock, Douwina Bosscher, Angela Bonnema, Aalt Bast
Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a non-caloric C4 polyol made by fermentation that has a sweetness 60–70% that of sucrose. The safety of erythritol has been consistently demonstrated in animal and human studies. Erythritol has a higher digestive tolerance compared to all other polyols because about 90% of the ingested erythritol is readily absorbed and excreted unchanged in urine. Erythritol is used in a wide range of applications for sweetening and other functionalities, e.g., in beverages, chewing gum and candies. In this review, we summarise the health effects of erythritol described in the literature. We focus on studies involving the anti-cariogenic and endothelial protective effects of erythritol. We conclude that erythritol could be of great importance
and could be considered to be the preferred sugar substitute for a rapidly growing population of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes to reduce their risk of developing diabetic complications.
Elucidation of key antioxidant components in red wine via challenge with a range of oxidants using an HPLC comparison to faux wine
Amanda Seemungal, Declan P. Naughton, Andrea Petróczi
The purported health benefits of red wine owing to its antioxidant capacity attract persistent attention. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the contribution of individual phenolic constituents to the antioxidant capacity of red wine and (2) to investigate if non-phenolic components have oxidant or antioxidant effects. Red wine and a faux wine model systems of 11 constituent phenolic compounds were challenged with increasing concentrations of selected oxidants, namely hydrogen peroxide, redox-active transition metal ions and Fenton systems. Antioxidant activity was assessed through loss of phenolic components upon oxidant challenge measured using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Elemental analysis of the red wine showed that the concentration of metal ions was in the range of 0.01–1.11 mM, whereas the concentration of antioxidant phenolics in the wine was in the range of 0.10–4.40 mM. As expected, addition of all five oxidant systems to both red wine and faux wine resulted in considerable loss of phenolics as quantified by HPLC. However, the pattern of phenolic loss was largely similar for both red wine and the faux wine across the five oxidant systems (frequently ca. 50–60% with the initial addition of oxidant), with only marginal effects on antioxidant activity after further additions of oxidants. The data revealed that the non-phenolic wine constituents had little influence over oxidative processes under the conditions studied, suggesting that the antioxidant
properties observed in the tested red wine could be attributable to the phenolics.
Effect of processing methods on the antioxidant properties and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by African pear (Dacryodes edulis) fruit
G. Oboh, A.O. Ademosun, T.A. Olasehinde, S.I. Oyeleye, E.O. Ehiakhamen
This study sought to investigate the effect of two traditional processing methods (roasting and hotwater treatment) of African pear (Dacryodes edulis [G. Don] H.J. Lam. [Burseraceae]) on the phenolic content, antioxidant properties and inhibition of two carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes management (α-glucosidase and α-amylase). Some African pear samples were roasted for 5 min, while some were treated in hot water for 5 min. Thereafter, the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activities, and interaction of the raw and processed samples with α-amylase and α-glucosidase were determined. The results of the total phenol and flavonoid contents of the raw, hot-water-treated and roasted African pear samples revealed that the roasted samples had significantly (p<0.05) higher total phenol (22.4 mg/g) and flavonoid (3.14 mg/g) content than hot-water-treated (total phenol [16.2 mg/g], total flavonoid [2.32 mg/g]) and raw samples (total phenol [12.1 mg/g], total flavonoid [1.91 mg/g]). The roasted samples had the highest radical-scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities, as well as inhibition
of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro; the raw samples had the least. Similarly, the samples inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose-dependent manner; however, the processed samples had significantly higher inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities than the raw samples. The higher phenolic content, antioxidant properties and inhibition of key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type 2 diabetes in the roasted samples show that this is a better processing method for African pear than hot-water treatment.
Raw versus cooked vegetable juice
Effect on parameters of glycaemic overload and oxidative stress in vitro
Dommati Anand Kumar, Sanga Venkata Anusha, Swathi Oruganti, Manaswini Deshpande, Amtul Zehra, Ashok Kumar Tiwari
The effect of microwave cooking on vegetables was analysed regarding parameters affecting postprandial glycaemic overload and oxidative stress. Microwave cooking affected the biological activities in different vegetables different ways. Rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was not affected by cooking in yellow cucumber, ridge gourd, radish root and bladder dock juice, however, it was reduced in bottle gourd. On the other hand, an increase in α-glucosidase inhibitory potential was noticed after cooking in green amaranthus. Similarly, free radical scavenging activity increased due to cooking in vegetable juice except in bladder dock and palak. Antihaemolytic activity increased in bottle gourd, radish root, palak and green amaranthus, and decreased in yellow cucumber and bladder dock juice after cooking. However, it was not affected in ridge gourd and radish leaves. Cooking augmented antiglycation properties in the juice of ridge gourd, radish root and leaves, but mitigated those properties in yellow cucumber and bladder dock. No change in antiglycation potential was noticed due to cooking in bottle gourd and green amaranthus leaf juice. Cooking increased total polyphenol content in vegetable juice, however, varied results were obtained for total flavonoid content. Substantial loss in protein content due to cooking was recorded in all vegetables. Although among the studied vegetables, the juice of ridge gourd and radish root displayed a majority of biological activities, the juice of raw yellow cucumber displayed better α-glucosidase inhibition, free radical scavenging and antihaemolytic and antiglycation activities. Therefore, raw yellow cucumber juice may become a cost-effective nutrafood helpful in mitigating disorders of glycaemic overload and oxidative stress.
Optimization of bioprocessing parameters using response surface methodology for bael (Aegle marmelos L.) wine with the analysis of antioxidant potential, colour and heavy metal concentration
Kaustav Chakraborty, Joyjit Saha, Utpal Raychaudhuri, Runu Chakraborty
Wine prepared from the tropical fruit bael (Aegle marmelos L.), known for its medicinal properties, is a novel beverage rich in antioxidants having enough credibility for projecting it as a medicinal wine. In the present study, bael, which is abundantly available in the region, was selected for wine production and its alcohol content was estimated using gas chromatography analysis. The conditions for the fermentation were optimised using response surface methodology. The quantitative effects of temperature, pH and duration of fermentation were investigated on fermentation of ethanol from bael using wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3315) as the starter culture. The optimum conditions for a 8.13% yield of ethanol were found to be temperature of 34°C, pH of 4.5 and duration of fermentation of 48 h. Biochemical analyses were conducted to study the proximate attributes of the pulp and wine with their respective changes due to fermentation. The raw bael pulp had total soluble solids 22.31°Brix, pH 5.33, total phenolics 1.94 g/100 ml and carotenoids 32.98 μg/g dw; the wine had total soluble solids 3.3°Brix, pH 4.54, total phenolics 0.96 g/100 ml and carotenoids 29.90 μg/g dw. The bael pulp and wine had 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity of 70.99% and 49.03% respectively. The Hunter colour values of the bael pulp and wine were also evaluated and the results are presented. In this study, heavy metals like Cu (0.219 mg/l), Pb (0.190 mg/l), Zn (0.002 mg/l) and Fe (3.296 mg/l) were found in the wine. The structural feasibility of bael as an effective substrate for fermentation was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies.