Nutrafoods 3 – 2015 (pdf)

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    Recommented by World Health Organization

COD: NF3-2015 Categorie: ,

Editorial  A nutraceutical role for cannabidiol. Why not?


  • Galactogogues and breastfeeding

Original Research

  • Subjective effects of a combined lipid-lowering nutraceutical or ezetimibe on well-being and sexual performance in patients with perceived worsening of erectile function during statin treatment: a randomised clinical trial
  • Bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of raw and processed cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta)
  • Physicochemical, phytochemical and nutritional impact of fortified cereal-based extrudate snacks
  • Chrysanthemum flower oil inhibits diet-induced serum uric acid elevation in adult male subjects
  • Red pigment production by Monascus purpureus using sweet potato-based medium in submerged fermentation

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Galactogogues and breastfeeding
Focus on new natural solutions for hypogalactia
Maria Wilinska, Ekkehard Schleußner
Reduced breast milk production (called hypogalactia) is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure. For this reason, physicians need to provide information regarding best practices for breastfeeding and, if necessary, they should indicate methods to support breast milk production, for example the use of galactogogue medications, making sure that these problems do not lead to cessation of breastfeeding. Galactogogues are synthetic or plants molecules able to induce, maintain and increase milk production in women. The most frequently used natural galactogogue products include galega and silymarin. Unfortunately, all herbal extracts are characterised by low solubility with poor bioavailability and for this reason, in order to increase the absorption and efficacy of silymarin, a new formulation was developed and used as a delivery system: Silitidil®, a phytosome composed of silymarin and phospholipids. Silitidil® is able to improve the
bioavailability of silymarin, in comparison with pure silymarin and micronised silymarin. Moreover, a recently published pharmacological study from Capasso et al. has evaluated the effect of Silitidil® and the association of Silitidil® plus Galega officinalis on prolactin blood levels in mature female Wistar rats, versus control and micronised silymarin. Silitidil® plus Galega officinalis showed improved bioavailability and prolactin plasma levels compared with the oldest formulations of silymarin. Based on available data, this formulation could be considered a safe and effective natural product able to improve daily breast milk production in healthy women after delivery, without affecting milk quality.


Subjective effects of a combined lipid-lowering nutraceutical or ezetimibe on well-being and sexual performance in patients with perceived worsening of erectile function during statin treatment: a randomised clinical trial
Arrigo F.G. Cicero, Martina Rosticci, Giuseppe Derosa, Marcella Cagnati, Sergio D’Addato, Angelo Parini, Claudio Borghi
Background Beyond clinical trial evidence, the perceived association of statin use and impotence in general practice is not infrequent and the most common associated consequence is the discontinuation of the statin treatment. Aim of the study To carry out a randomised clinical trial on Caucasian men refusing to continue statin therapy because of perceived worsening of erectile function in order to test the tolerability of alternative lipid-lowering strategies. Methods This is a single-blind, randomised clinical trial carried out on 50 moderately hypercholesterolaemic subjects (mean age: 54±6 years old) who voluntarily interrupted statin treatment because of self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) during statin treatment, randomised to treatment with ezetimibe 10 mg or a combined lipid-lowering nutraceutical containing red yeast rice and berberine (3 mg monacolins and 500 mg per dose, respectively), to be taken as one dose per evening for 12 weeks. The effects of both treatments on ED and subjective well-being was tested by administrating, before and after 12 weeks of treatment, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P), and comparing the baseline hormonal level with the final one.
Results After 12 weeks of treatment, both ezetimibe- and nutraceutical-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in low-density lipoprotein cholesterolaemia and triglyceridaemia (both p<0.05) and a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (p<0.05 for both). However, patients taking the nutraceutical experienced a more significant increase than the group taking ezetimibe (1.2±0.7 vs. 0.7±0.3, p=0.04). Both ezetimibe- and nutraceutical- treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the nutraceutical-treated group’s improvement was larger than that of the ezetimibe- treated group (+8±4 vs. +6±3, p<0.05). Moreover, only the nutraceutical-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance related SAT-P score compared to the baseline (+7±5 and 6±3, both p<0.05). Conclusion Our data support the use of alternative lipid-lowering strategies in patients refusing to continue statin consumption because of perceived worsening of erectile function.


Bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of raw and processed cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta)
Chemical composition of raw and processed cocoyam
Ezinne Awa, Chinedum Eleazu
The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of raw, fried and decoctions of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tubers were investigated. The raw form contained considerable amounts of proximates, phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins, amylose, amylopectin and antioxidants (determined from carotenoid, reducing power and 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays). Boiling of C. esculenta resulted in increases (p<0.05) in moisture, carbohydrates, tannins and amylose; significant decreases of fat, ash, protein, carotenoids, thiamine, amylopectin, reducing sugars and DPPH-scavenging activity; insignificant decreases of flavonoids, alkaloids, riboflavin, crude fibre and reducing power. Frying resulted in significant increases in fat, ash, carbohydrate, tannins and amylose; an insignificant increase in crude fibre; an insignificant decrease in riboflavin; but significant (p<0.05) losses of moisture, protein, ash, flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids, thiamine, amylopectin, reducing sugars, DPPH-scavenging activity and reducing power. The decreased reducing sugar and increased crude fibre and amylose contents
following frying of C. esculenta could be of benefit to diabetics.


Physicochemical, phytochemical and nutritional impact of fortified cereal-based extrudate snacks
Effect of underutilized legume flour addition and extrusion cooking
Yogesh Gat, Laxmi Ananthanarayan
Legume seeds have high nutraceutical appeal and they can produce a balanced food when mixed with cereals. There has been little research on developing extrudate snacks with special health-enhancing characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the quantitative changes in the nutritional, physicochemical and phytochemical properties of rice–horse gram flour blend extrudate. Rice and horse gram flour blends were prepared in 70:30 proportions and were subjected to extrusion cooking. The effect of feed moisture (14–18%) and barrel temperature (140–180°C) on the nutritional, physicochemical (expansion, density, water solubility index, water absorption index and hardness) and phytochemical (total phenolic content [TPC] and total flavonoid content [TFC]) properties were studied. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the ABTS assay. High die temperature combined with low feed moisture was suitable for obtaining well expanded snacks having desirable density and hardness values. A significant decrease in TPC and TFC was observed upon extrusion and a further decrease of 8–29% in TPC and 13–27% in TFC was observed when feed moisture and die temperature were increased. Antioxidant activity increased upon extrusion and this increase was the highest (36–49%) at 180°C with 18% feed moisture. This study demonstrated the potential for production of low-cost expanded snacks with improved antioxidant capacity.


Chrysanthemum flower oil inhibits diet-induced serum uric acid elevation in adult male subjects
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over comparison study
Takahiro Ueda, Shinichi Honda, Hideyuki Morikawa, Shiro Kitamura, Yoshitaka Iwama, Kaku Nakagawa

This randomised, double-blind, cross-over comparison study investigated the effect of chrysanthemum flower oil (CFO) on diet-induced serum uric acid elevation (DUE). Twenty Japanese male subjects (aged 30–60 years) were randomly divided into two groups. During Period I, one group received the purine-loading food followed by the placebo, and the other received CFO instead of
placebo. During Period II, after a wash-out period, the test was repeated and the subjects crossed over to the alternate treatment. Blood was collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after purine loading to measure serum uric acid (sUA) level. Urine was collected from 0 to 120 min. All 20 subjects completed the study, but one subject, with suspected occult blood in his urine at the time of screening and a particularly large difference in urine volume between Periods I and II, was excluded from the efficacy analysis population. In the efficacy analysis population, CFO did not suppress DUE in subjects with baseline sUA between 5.5 and 8.0 mg/dl. However, stratification analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in DUE by CFO in subjects with baseline sUA ≥7.1 mg/dl. The area under the concentration curve from 0 to 240 min tended to decrease in the same population. For safety analysis, all 20 subjects were evaluated. One patient who developed mild cold symptoms recovered quickly with the symptoms disappearing. No clinically important adverse events were observed. It was concluded that CFO is effective in reducing DUE in Japanese male subjects.


Red pigment production by Monascus purpureus using sweet potato-based medium in submerged fermentation
Prateek Srivastav, Vivek Kumar Yadav, Sharmila Govindasamy, Muthukumaran Chandrasekaran
Monascus pigments have potential application as natural colorants in food industries. Sweet potato-based medium was optimised by statistical methods for maximised production of water-soluble red pigment from Monascus purpureus. Significant medium components (sweet potato, K2HPO4 and MgSO4·7H2O) were identified by employing a Plackett-Burman
screening experiment for pigment and biomass production. A five-level central composite design of the response surface method was applied to evaluate the optimal concentration and the interaction effects between the selected components. Maximum pigment absorbance of 4.488 (ODU/ml) was predicted at the optimum level of sweet potato, 3.341%, K2HPO4, 0.082% and MgSO4·7H2O, 0.033%. Model verification was performed at the predicted optimal level and the model was well fitted with the experimental results. The results of this study showed that
sweet potato can be utilised as a low-cost substrate for red pigment production.