Nutrafoods 4 – 2014 (pdf)

36 €

    Bioactive peptides and diabetes

    Cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis 

COD: NF4-2014 Categorie: ,

Editorial  The protein decade


  • Proteins and bioactive peptides

Original Research

  • Impact of cigarette smoking on the plasma fatty acid profile and their interaction in determining the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis
  • Chemical and sensory evaluation of a functional beverage obtained from infusions of oak leaves (Quercus resinosa) inoculated with the kombucha consortium under different processing conditions
  • Fermentation of sapota (Achras sapota Linn.) fruits to functional wine

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Proteins and bioactive peptides
Miguel E. Oseguera-Toledo, Elvira González de Mejía, Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho, Anaberta Cardador-Martínez, Silvia L. Amaya-Llano
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major metabolic, multi-causal and heterogeneous disorder,
characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia, which causes significant morbidity and mortality, with a considerable burden on health-care resources. The number of deaths due to T2DM highlights the importance of controlling the disease and its complications. It has been demonstrated that some proteins, protein hydrolysates, bioactive peptides and amino acids can control glucose levels directly or indirectly. Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of food ingredients and offer the potential for incorporation into functional and nutraceutical foods. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which these compounds exert their action on glucose control such as modulating insulin production, incretin secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition, regulation of glucose uptake in peripheral tissue and inhibition of some enzymes related with glucose absorption. Peptides such as IPAVF, PGVGGPLGPIGPCYE, CAYQWQRPVNRIR, PACGGFYISGRPG, WV, GPAE, GPGA, LP, IP, KLPGF and LI have shown potential for regulating blood glucose. Bioavailability and delivery of bioactive peptides are also discussed.


Impact of cigarette smoking on the plasma fatty acid profile and their interaction in determining the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis
Damiano Baldassarre, Mauro Amato, Beatrice Frigerio, Silvia Ghezzi, Claudio Colombo, Samuela Castelnuovo, Alessio Ravani, Daniela Sansaro, Elena Tremoli, Cesare Riccardo Sirtori, Patrizia Risé, Claudio Galli
Background and aims Cigarette smoking is a well established determinant of carotid atherosclerosis. The mechanisms potentially responsible for this effect, e.g., activation of extensive peroxidation processes leading to, among others, altered endothelial function, may involve changes of fatty acid (FA) levels. In this study, we evaluated the impact of cigarette smoking on FA profiles and interactions with circulating FAs in determining subclinical atherosclerosis. This was established by the parallel determination of the carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT).
Methods and results Plasma FA composition and C-IMT were measured in 36 smokers and 36 neversmokers, matched for age, sex and lipid levels.
Compared to never-smokers, smokers had higher saturated FA (14:0, 16:0) and monounsaturated FA (16:1, 18:1) levels and lower levels of 24:1, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3. Endogenously generated FA (e.g., docosapentaenoic acid) and the Δ5 Desaturation Index were also reduced in smokers. In partial correlation analysis of the whole series of 72 subjects, after adjustment for BMI and triglycerides, C-IMT correlated positively with 18:3 n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid and Δ6 Desaturation Index and negatively with 20:1, linoleic acid and n-6. When the analysis was carried out separately in smokers and never-smokers, correlations retained significance only in smokers. Conclusions Cigarette smoking has an impact on the FA profile and may influence the different correlations between plasma FA and subclinical atherosclerosis observed in smokers and never-smokers.


Chemical and sensory evaluation of a functional beverage obtained from infusions of oak leaves (Quercus resinosa) inoculated with the kombucha consortium under different processing conditions
Blanca D. Vázquez-Cabral, Nuria E. Rocha-Guzmán, José A. Gallegos-Infante, Silvia M. González-Herrera, Rubén F. González-Laredo, Martha R. Moreno-Jiménez, Indira T.S. Córdova-Moreno
The potential use of non-timber products as alternative sources of functional beverages such as kombucha analogues was evaluated. The fermentation of sweetened oak herbal infusions (Quercus resinosa) with the kombucha consortium was explored. The following conditions of the fermentation process induced by the action of the kombucha consortium were assessed: sensory acceptability and pH, colour and chemical changes (phenolic composition). The chemical analysis showed the presence of hydroxy – benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, flavonols and flavanones, which are related to the antioxidant capacity of the product obtained. The metabolic consumption of flavan-3-ols and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as well as
the production of organic acids (succinic acid) has decreased the astringency and bitterness, improving the product’s quality and acceptability. Fermentation with the kombucha consortium significantly increased the product’s acceptability (up to 5 units) and decreased its pH (2 units).


Fermentation of sapota (Achras sapota Linn.) fruits to functional wine
Sandeep K. Panda, Umesh C. Sahu, Sunil K. Behera, Ramesh C. Ray
Wine from sapota (Achras sapota Linn.) fruit was prepared by fermenting with wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to preserve the nutritional, antioxidative and functional properties of the fruits. The wine had the following proximate compositions: total soluble solids, 2.38°Brix; total sugar, 3.28 g/100 ml; titratable acidity (TA), 1.29 g tartaric acid/100 ml; pH, 3.02; total phenolics, 0.21 g/100 ml; β-carotene, 22 μg/100 ml; ascorbic acid, 1.78 mg/100 ml; lactic acid, 0.64 mg/100 ml; and ethanol content, 8.23% (v/v). The sapota wine had a 2,2-diphenyl-1picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity of 46% at a dose of 250 μg/ml. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of alcohols, phenols, anhydrides, amides, esters and alkenes in the sapota wine. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the 10 original analytical and proximate variables (total soluble solids, total sugar, TA, pH, phenol, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and DPPH-scavenging activity) into four independent components, which accounted for 87.55% variations. Sensory evaluation was carried out by 16 panellists on various attributes like taste, aroma, flavour, colour/appearance and aftertaste. The results showed that the flavour, taste and aroma of sapota wine was strongly liked by the panellists and there was no significant difference
(p<0.05) between the two replicates for most sensory parameters.