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Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unique oligosaccharides found in mother’s milk. Collectively, HMOs constitute the third largest solute in human milk, after lactose and fat. The types and levels of HMO vary considerably among women, geographical regions and the stages of lactation. Over 130 different oligosaccharides have been identified in human milk, with 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) being the most abundant (~2 g/l). Recent innovations and regulatory approvals have enabled infant formula companies to incorporate 2’-FL into their products, helping infant formulas to become more like mother’s milk. This article explores the latest research on HMOs and their role in supporting digestive, immune and cognitive development in infants.